Theta-join

Selection on Bags / Product of Bags / Joins of Bags

To apply a selection to a bag, we apply the selection condition to each tuple separately. As always with bags, we do not remove duplicate tuples in the result.

Outerjoins

An attribute of the join operator is that it is possible for certain tuples to be "dangling"; that is, they fail to match any tuple of the other relation in the common attributes. Dangling tuples do not have any trace in the result of the join, so the join may not represent the data of

Natural Joins / Outerjoins

As we recall from Natural Joins / Theta-Joins, a natural join differs from a theta-join in that: 1. The join condition is that all pairs of attributes from the two relations having a common name are equated, and there are no other conditions. 2. One of each pair of equated attributes is projected out.

Grouping / HAVING Clauses

To group tuples, we use a GROUP BY clause, following the WHERE clause. The keywords GROUP BY are followed by a list of grouping attributes. In the simplest situation, there is only one relation reference in the FROM clause, and this relation has its tuples grouped according

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