Database Programming

Relational Algebra

This section begins a study of database programming, that is, how the user can ask queries of the database and can change the contents of the database. Our focus is on the relational model, and especially on a notation for describing queries about the content of relations called

Constraints on Relations

Relational algebra offers a means to express common constraints, such as the referential integrity constraints introduced in The Modeling of Constraints. Actually, we shall see that relational algebra provides us convenient ways to express a large variety of other constraints. Even

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